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Bulgaria was part of the Axis forces until September, 1944. Up to that point her main duties were the occupation of Greek Macedonia, Thrace, and Salonika, utilising most of her forces there and in Serbia to keep German supply lines open between Belgrade and Greece (operating mainly against partisans).

A coup d'etat took place after Tsar Boris III died, and in September, 1944, Bulgaria made peace with the Allies and changed sides. The Bulgarian 1st, 2nd, and 4th Armies, under Soviet operational control, were tasked with preventing the Germans from retreating out of Greece and the Aegean.

Bulgarian troops linked up with British forces in Austria on May 13, 1945.

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The Croats didn't send many/any of their own units into Russia; like the Bulgarians, they mostly did their work in Eastern Europe, supressing the Partisans and the Chetniks. However, many 'minor' nationalities sent troops as part of the Ethnic SS divisions, or as regular Wehrmacht soldiers. An excellent case in point was the 20th SS, Estland, made up of Estonian recruits (said to be the best of the 'Ethnic Divisions').

I've often 'simulated' Croat battles in Vojvodina or Bosnia with Hungarian troops mixed with some light armored cars or obsolete tanks (PZ III in 1944) versus Partisans (meaning the real, Marshal Tito-led partisans.)


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When the Russians annexed the Baltic states, their military was absorbed into the Soviet war effort:

Estonian Army became the 22nd Territorial Rifle Corps

Lithuanian Army became the 29th Lithuanian Rifle Corps

Latvian Army became the Latvian People's Army, later in 1944, the 130th Latvian Rifle Corps (two divisions)

On the other side of the coin, some 3000 Estonians fought for Finland (forming Infantry Regiment 200). In August, 1944, 2600 Estonians returned to their homeland to defend against the advancing Soviets. The remaining Estonians escaped into Sweden after the Finns capitulated.

Numerous nationalities fought as part of the German war machine at various times:

SS Division "Nordland"- mainly Norwegian, but also Danes, and Dutch. Fought in Yugoslavia and the East Front.

Danish "Freikorps"- served in the northern East Front with distinction, was disbanded in 1943 after suffering terrible losses.

SS "Niederlande" foreign legion (Dutch), later became SS "Nederland" Division, fought in Croatia and later, the East Front

Infantry Battalion 373 (Walloon Belgians), served alongside Romanian troops, and then with the German 100th Rifle Division (Jager). Became SS Assault Brigade "Wallonien"- attached to SS Division "Wiking." Fought at Cherkassy (1943) and Narva (1944).

French SS Volunteer Assault Brigade, later became Waffen Grenadier Brigade "Charlemagne." When enough French had joined, "Charlemagne" became a division. Fought in Galicia and around Danzig. Also, the "Legion Volontaire Francaise" crossed the Soviet frontier with attacking German forces in October, 1941, mainly fighting partisans in the Ukraine until September, 1944.

Estonia- as mentioned in the preceding post

Latvia- 15th and 19th SS Grenadier Divisions, plus a grenadier regiment, forming VI SS Korps.

Croatia- 13th SS Volunteer Division, formed V SS Mountain Korps along with SS Division "Prinz Eugen." A second division, 23rd SS Mountain Division "Kama," was also formed in 1944, but was found unreliable and was disbanded after only a few months. 13th SS was first division made up of non-Aryans.

Soviet citizens- an estimated 1.5 million Soviets served in the German armed forces, first as labour and helpers, then as scouts and interpreters, and then as the Reich manpower situation became worse, fighting troops. The Don, Kuban, Siberian, Terek, and Caucasian Cossacks are one example of many of these.

Serbian Volunteer Corps, later Serbian SS Korps

Spanish "Blue" Division, later became the 250th Infantry Division. Withdrawn from the East Front in October, 1943 after suffering enormous casualties. A Spanish "Blue Legion" soldiered on until April, 1944, fighting partisans in the northern East Front.

Slovakia, after declaring itself independent from Czechoslovakia (to prevent being invaded by Hungarian troops), contributed two divisions, a light brigade, and a battalion of light tanks to the German cause in the east.

I'm sure I've missed others.

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you have missed an important one, the

BFC the british free corps

Pows were given the chance to fight on the NAZI side only 30 POWs accepted.

When Dresden was destoyed the BFC was in the area and was acussed of giving intel for the raid after that they were sent to the eastern front as reinforcements for a SS unit holding off the Russians at a river(do not know what the river, unit or area was called)by this time there were anly 6 or 7 of them left.

I belive in the battle what happened was most of the unit was killed.

Now only one man suvices i belive he lives austraila and denies having served with the unit.

[ March 17, 2003, 10:56 AM: Message edited by: Jack Ryan ]

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just found there names and what happend to them.

SS-Mann Frank Axon (Eng.)

SS-Mann Harry Batchelor (Eng.)

SS-Mann Kenneth Edward Berry (England)

SS-Mann ? Croft(Eng.)

SS-Uscha. Douglas Mardon (South African)

SS-Mann Ernest Nicholls (Eng.)

SS-Mann Albert Stokes (Australian)

they were given up to 15 years to no sentances depending on there involment with the unit.

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  • 2 weeks later...


Your information appears correct to me, but you left out one point:

The Bulgarians never devlared war on the USSR.

For some reason they saw fit to do so against the Western Allies (and British SOE operated in Bulgaria, mostly the part annexed from Yugoslavia). But because of Bulgaria's cultural and historical ties to Russia (Russia helped assure Bulgarian independence), they never did declare war.

I also recall that they resisted pressure from the Germans to round up Bulgarian Jews and send them to the camps.

Zimorodok, the Croats did send some ground and air personnel to the USSR (some participated in the Stalingrad campaign), but not many as you say. Are you from Croatia? I've got a number of pals there. . . .

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Originally posted by Maj. Battaglia:

Zimorodok, the Croats did send some ground and air personnel to the USSR (some participated in the Stalingrad campaign), but not many as you say. Are you from Croatia? I've got a number of pals there. . . .

ummm, all I know comes from the internet or books in my possession. I have one book that mentions a 15.(Kroat)/JG52 fighter unit based in Zilistea and some information from some other sites including the GrossDeutschland site and this one about the (first) 369th at the Feldgrau site.

I do know that both Croat/Bosniak Waffen SS divisions (Handschar and "Kama") served (or were at least intended on serving) in Yugoslavia, and not in Russia


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The Bulgarian Army attacked the German forces in Yugoslavia, and neighboring areas. Their most notable efforts came against the Prinz Eugen Division near Nis (or Nish) and also engaged elements of the SS Handschar Division (?)as the war drew to a close.

What I find interesting is their large use of German equipment--particularly artillery, halftracks and Mark IV tanks.

Speaking of forgotten Axis, how do we portrat the Slovaks in CM?

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As far as I know, Slovaks were only deployed for rear area security. And there were not a lot. No point putting them in the game. If you wanted to do something with the SNP (Slovak National Uprising), you could probably use Soviet partisans.

Zimorodok, the 369th is the one I've seen in regards to Stalingrad. Regarding the SS formations, you are correct that they only saw actin within Yugoslavia.

Maybe someone could do a mod and put fezzes on German troops to portray the Handschar. . . .

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If anyone's interested in the history of the 13 SS ( Handschar ) Division; check out this book: Himmler's Bosnian Division: The Waffen - SS Handschar Division 1943 - 1945 by George Lepre. Published by Schiffer in 1997. This is a very informative book. It can be used as a reference for anyone wanting to design a QB or a full blown scenario in the former Yugoslavia. The collar patches are wrong but the division did wear camouflaged gear ( Andrew Fox's excellent SS mods ).

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Recent books have appeared on the market pertaining to the Slovaks. Mark Axelworthy (author of the Third Axis Fourth Ally) has recently published his book on the Slovaks. In addition there are "oversized" photo books that deal exclusively with the Czech and Slovak forces and their weaponry. In these books you will find much detail on battles in Russia fought by the "Slovak Fast Corps" ( a similar appellation which was affixed to the Hungarians). Note that the Slovaks had a regimental sized unit involved in the fight for Rostov. I also think that the Slovak Uprising in late '44 would make for interesting scenarios. Some of these could use Partisans, Russian Paratroops (they were actually a Czech force outfitted with Russian gear)and Axis weapons all fighting the Germans. smile.gif

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